Before 1850, almost all shoes in the United States were made by male shoemakers, literally "purely handmade", there were few machines to assist them. By 1875, more than 150 million pairs of shoes had been brought offline at assembly-line factories in the United States, mostly by women in the factories. Lynn, Massachusetts, just 6km from Boston, has been the center of American footwear since 1635.
From hand to the machine, inventors standing at the forefront of this miraculous transformation are not scientists or college students.
Most of these inventors are industrial workers, most of whom come from humble backgrounds and live a depressing life; Combined with the chaotic but exciting undertone of the times, the entrepreneurial story behind every shoe-making machine reads with a romantic epic.
It's not a gimmick, like the Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Morgan stories in the documentary Legends of America's Business Tycoon, the shoemaking industry made a deep and superexcellent track in the United States, which is an important piece of the puzzle in the development of America's capitalist empire.